Why is it so important for a man to be the boss?

In 1848 Arnold Berthold, a German zoologist, decided to find out what made roosters strut around and feel possessive towards hens. For this purpose he conducted an unusual experiment aimed at removing the mystery of the world of hormones.

In the course of the experiment he operated on six roosters and removed their testicles. At the same time he re-implanted the testicles of another two roosters into the body cavities close to the intestines. And in the last two birds were transplanted the testicles of one another.

While the castrated roosters were getting older their voices became softer, their feathers were lighter and their heads smaller. Berthold wrote that they were not aggressive and didn’t want to fight with other roosters. At the same time the scientist detected no differences in the roosters whose testicles had been re-implanted in comparison with ordinary birds. These four roosters were growing as normal as if they were not a part of the experiment: they were crowing, fighting a lot, their combs and feathers were absolutely normal.


On the basis of this experiment Berthold studied hormones and the nature of the male hormone - testosterone.

And this was the starting point of the creation of “the elixir of masculinity”.

It is stated that testosterone, a male hormone, was synthesized in 1935 by Adolf Butenandt, a German biochemist, and  Leopold Ruzicka, a Croatian-Swiss scientist, who received the Noble Price in chemistry for this discovery.

“At the present moment it is known that testosterone activates sexual desire and therefore makes a man fertile. Without testosterone there would be no sperm cells. This is the essential feature of the male hormone. But men live in a very competitive society therefore for achieving the goal of reproduction they have to be aggressive, ambitious, fertile…’, Joe Herberty, a professor of neurology at Cambridge University, noted in an interview to the BBC. According to the scientist “an alpha male” usually has a high level of testosterone and as for  men with ordinary sexual appetite this indicator is significantly lower.